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Gastroesophageal reflux disease

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"" redirects here. For other uses, see Gerd.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Other namesBritish: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD);[1] gastric reflux disease, acid reflux disease, reflux, gastroesophageal reflux
X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux
Pronunciation
SpecialtyGastroenterology
SymptomsTaste of acid, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, breathing problems[5]
ComplicationsEsophagitis, esophageal strictures, Barrett''s esophagus.[5]

Risk factors include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, hiatal hernia, and taking certain medicines.[5] Medications involved may include antihistamines, calcium channel blockers, antidepressants and sleeping pills.[5] Acid reflux is due to poor closure of the lower esophageal sphincter, which is at the junction between the stomach and the esophagus.[5] Diagnosis among those who do not improve with simpler measures may involve gastroscopy, upper GI series, esophageal pH monitoring, or esophageal manometry.[5]

Treatment options include lifestyle changes; medications; and sometimes surgery for those who do not improve with the first two measures.[5] Lifestyle changes include not lying down for three hours after eating, raising the head of the bed, losing weight, avoiding foods which result in symptoms, and stopping smoking.[5] Medications include antacids, H2 receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors, and prokinetics.[5][8]

In the Western world, between 10 and 20% of the population is affected by GERD.[8] Occasional gastroesophageal reflux without troublesome symptoms or complications is even more common.[5] The classic symptoms of GERD were first described in 1925, when Friedenwald and Feldman commented on heartburn and its possible relationship to a hiatal hernia.[9] In 1934 gastroenterologist Asher Winkelstein described reflux and attributed the symptoms to stomach acid.[10]

Contents

  • 1 Signs and symptoms

    ChildrenHeartburn Remedies Anti-Reflux Diet (⭐️ Best Drinks For) | Heartburn Remedies Holidayhow to Heartburn Remedies for [edit][edit]

    GERD may be difficult to detect in infants and children, since they cannot describe what they are feeling and indicators must be observed. Symptoms may vary from typical adult symptoms. GERD in children may cause repeated vomiting, effortless spitting up, coughing, and other respiratory problems, such as wheezing. Inconsolable crying, refusing food, crying for food and then pulling off the bottle or breast only to cry for it again, failure to gain adequate weight, bad breath, and burping are also common. Children may have one symptom or many; no single symptom is universal in all children with GERD.

    Heartburn Remedies 7 Natural GERD (🔴 Help Relieve) | Heartburn Remedies Simples Stepshow to Heartburn Remedies for Of the estimated 4 million babies born in the US each year, up to 35% of them may have difficulties with reflux in the first few months of their lives, known as ''.[14] One theory for this is the "" which notes most animals are born with significant mobility, but humans are relatively helpless at birth, and suggests there may have once been a fourth trimester, but children began to be born earlier, evolutionarily, to accommodate the development of larger heads and brains and allow them to pass through the birth canal and this leaves them with partially undeveloped digestive systems.[citation needed]

    Most children will outgrow their reflux by their first birthday. However, a small but significant number of them will not outgrow the condition. This is particularly true when a family history of GERD is present.[Heartburn Remedies Natural Remedies (🔴 List Of) | Heartburn Remedies 14 Home Remedieshow to Heartburn Remedies for citation needed]

    Heartburn Remedies Tests (☑ Treatment) | Heartburn Remedies Solutionshow to Heartburn Remedies for Barrett''s esophagus

GERD may lead to Barrett''s to dysplasia is uncertain, but is estimated at about 20% of cases.[15] Due to the risk of chronic heartburn progressing to Barrett''s esophagus is seen.[26] Investigation for H. pylori is not usually needed.[26]

The current gold standard for diagnosis of GERD is esophageal pH monitoring. It is the most objective test to diagnose the reflux disease and allows monitoring GERD patients in their response to medical or surgical treatment. One practice for diagnosis of GERD is a short-term treatment with proton-pump inhibitors, with improvement in symptoms suggesting a positive diagnosis. Short-term treatment with proton-pump inhibitors may help predict abnormal 24-hr pH monitoring results among patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD.[28]

Endoscopy[edit]

Endoscopy, the looking down into the stomach with a fibre-optic scope, is not routinely needed if the case is typical and responds to treatment.[26] It is recommended when people either do not respond well to treatment or have alarm symptoms, including dysphagia, anemia, blood in the stool (detected chemically), wheezing, weight loss, or voice changes.[26] Some physicians advocate either once-in-a-lifetime or 5- to 10-yearly endoscopy for people with longstanding GERD, to evaluate the possible presence of dysplasia or Barrett''s esophagus

  • Elongation of the papillae
  • Thinning of the squamous cell layer
  • Dysplasia
  • Carcinoma
  • Reflux changes may not be erosive in nature, leading to "".

    Severity[edit]

    Heartburn Remedies Diagnosis (🔴 Disease Treatment) | Heartburn Remedies Acid Refluxhow to Heartburn Remedies for Severity may be documented with the Johnson-DeMeester''s shoulders and head, may inhibit GERD when lying down.[36] Although moderate exercise may improve symptoms in people with GERD, vigorous exercise may worsen them.[33]

    Abstinence from smoking or alcohol does not appear to significantly relieve symptoms.[35]

    Medications for 1 last update 2020/05/31 [[edit]

    The primary medications used for GERD are proton-pump inhibitors, H2 receptor blockers and antacids with or without alginic for 1 last update 2020/05/31 acid.[8] The use of acid suppression therapy is a common response to GERD symptoms and many people get more of this kind of treatment than their case merits.[37] The overuse of acid suppression is a problem because of the side effects and costs.[37] The primary medications used for GERD are proton-pump inhibitors, H2 receptor blockers and antacids with or without alginic acid.[8] The use of acid suppression therapy is a common response to GERD symptoms and many people get more of this kind of treatment than their case merits.[37] The overuse of acid suppression is a problem because of the side effects and costs.[37]

    Proton-pump inhibitors[edit]

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), such as omeprazole, are the most effective, followed by H2 receptor blockers, such as ranitidine.[27] If a once daily PPI is only partially effective they may be used twice a day.[27] They should be taken one half to one hour before a meal.[26] There is no significant difference between PPIs.[26] When these medications are used long term, the lowest effective dose should be taken.[27] They may also be taken only when symptoms occur in those with frequent problems.[26] H2 receptor blockers lead to roughly a 40% improvement.[38]

    Antacids[editHeartburn Remedies 10 Easy (⭐️ 11 Foods That Cause) | Heartburn Remedies Tipshow to Heartburn Remedies for ]

    The evidence for antacids is weaker with a benefit of about 10% (NNT=13) while a combination of an antacid and alginic acid (such as Gaviscon) may improve symptoms 60% (NNT=4).[38] Metoclopramide (a prokinetic) is not recommended either alone or in combination with other treatments due to concerns around adverse effects.[8][27] The benefit of the prokinetic mosapride is modest.[8]

    Other agents[edit]

    Sucralfate has a similar effectiveness to H2 receptor the 1 last update 2020/05/31 blockers; however, sucralfate needs to be taken multiple times a day, thus limiting its use.[8] Baclofen, an agonist of the GABAB receptor, while effective, has similar issues of needing frequent dosing in addition to greater adverse effects compared to other medications.[8] Sucralfate has a similar effectiveness to H2 receptor blockers; however, sucralfate needs to be taken multiple times a day, thus limiting its use.[8] Baclofen, an agonist of the GABAB receptor, while effective, has similar issues of needing frequent dosing in addition to greater adverse effects compared to other medications.[8]

    Heartburn Remedies To Eat (🔴 Diet) | Heartburn Remedies To Eathow to Heartburn Remedies for Surgery[edit]

    Heartburn Remedies 11 Foods That Help (🔥 Foods For Acid Reflux) | Heartburn Remedies Nighttimehow to Heartburn Remedies for The standard surgical treatment for severe GERD is the Nissen fundoplication. In this procedure, the upper part of the stomach is wrapped around the lower esophageal sphincter to strengthen the sphincter and prevent acid reflux and to repair a hiatal hernia.[39] It is recommended only for those who do not improve with PPIs.[26] Quality of life is improved in the short term compared to medical therapy, but there is uncertainty in the benefits over surgery versus long-term medical management with proton pump inhibitors.[40] When comparing different fundoplication techniques, partial posterior fundoplication surgery is more effective than partial anterior fundoplication surgery,[41] and partial fundoplication has better outcomes than the 1 last update 2020/05/31 total fundoplication.[42] The standard surgical treatment for severe GERD is the Nissen fundoplication. In this procedure, the upper part of the stomach is wrapped around the lower esophageal sphincter to strengthen the sphincter and prevent acid reflux and to repair a hiatal hernia.[39] It is recommended only for those who do not improve with PPIs.[26] Quality of life is improved in the short term compared to medical therapy, but there is uncertainty in the benefits over surgery versus long-term medical management with proton pump inhibitors.[40] When comparing different fundoplication techniques, partial posterior fundoplication surgery is more effective than partial anterior fundoplication surgery,[41] and partial fundoplication has better outcomes than total fundoplication.[42]

    Esophagogastric dissociation is an alternative procedure that is sometimes used to treat neurologically impaired children with GERD.[43][44] Preliminary studies have shown it may have a lower failure rate[45] and a lower incidence of recurrent reflux.[44]

    In 2012 the FDA approved a device called the LINX, which consists of a series of metal beads with magnetic cores that are placed surgically around the lower esophageal sphincter, for those with severe symptoms that do not respond to other treatments. Improvement of GERD symptoms is similar to those of the Nissen fundoplication, although there is no data regarding long-term effects. Compared to Nissen fundoplication procedures, the procedure has shown a reduction in complications such as gas bloat syndrome that commonly occur.[46] Adverse responses include difficulty swallowing, chest pain, vomiting, and nausea. Contraindications that would advise against use of the device are patients who are or may be allergic to titanium, stainless steel, nickel, or ferrous iron materials. A warning advises that the device should not be used by patients who could be exposed to, or undergo, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because of serious injury to the patient and damage to the device.[47]

    In those with symptoms that do not improve with PPIs surgery known as transoral incisionless fundoplication may help.[48] Benefits may last for up to six years.[49]

    Special populationsHeartburn Remedies GERD Diet (🔴 Holiday) | Heartburn Remedies Holidayhow to Heartburn Remedies for [edit]

    Pregnancy[edit]

    In pregnancy, dietary modifications and lifestyle changes may be attempted, but often have little effect. Calcium-based antacids are recommended if these changes are not effective. Aluminum- and magnesium hydroxide -based antacids are also safe, as is ranitidine[50] and PPIs.[26]

    Heartburn Remedies Herbs (☑ Side Effects) | Heartburn Remedies Heartburn Relief Foodshow to Heartburn Remedies for the 1 last update 2020/05/31 BabiesBabies[edit]

    Babies may see relief with smaller, more frequent feedings, more frequent burping during feedings, holding baby in upright position 30 minutes after feedings, keep baby''gastrooesophageal reflux''s Esophagus. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.

  • ^ "". June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017.
  • Heartburn Remedies Disease (🔴 10 Foods To Eat) | Heartburn Remedies Treatmentshow to Heartburn Remedies for ^^ Sontag SJ (1999). "". Yale J Biol Med. 72 (2–3): 69–80. PMC Heartburn Remedies Symptoms (🔴 GERD) | Heartburn Remedies 6 Natural Remedieshow to Heartburn Remedies for 2579007. PMID 10780568.
  • ^ Piesman M, Hwang I, Maydonovitch C, Wong RK (2007). "". Am J Gastroenterol. 102 (10): 2128–34. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01348.x. PMID 17573791.
  • ^ Ayazi S; Crookes PF; Peyre CG; et al. (2007). "". Am J Gastroenterol. 102 (S2): 138–9. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01491_1.x. PMID 17767580. Archived from the original on 4 February 2011.
  • ^ Ayazi S, Hagen JA, Chan LS, DeMeester SR, Lin MW, Ayazi A, Leers JM, Oezcelik A, Banki F, Lipham JC, DeMeester TR, Crookes PF (August 2009). "". J. Gastrointest. Surg. 13 (8): 1440–7. doi:10.1007/s11605-009-0930-7. PMC 2710497. PMID 19475461.
  • ^ Heartburn Remedies Acid Reflux Every Day (🔴 What To Eat) | Heartburn Remedies Acidityhow to Heartburn Remedies for Morse CA, Quan SF, Mays MZ, Green C, Stephen G, Fass R (2004). "". Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2 (9): 761–8. doi:10.1016/S1542-3565(04)00347-7. PMID 15354276.Heartburn Remedies Acidity (👍 How To Get Rid) | Heartburn Remedies Best Drinks Forhow to Heartburn Remedies for
  • ^ Kasasbeh A, Kasasbeh E, Krishnaswamy G (2007). "". Sleep Med Rev. 11 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2006.05.001. PMID 17198758.
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  • ^ Mills, S (ed.) 2009.Sternberg''Oglio, L. (May 2001). "". Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 36 (5): 677–680. doi:10.1053/jpsu.2001.22935. ISSN 0022-3468. PMID 11329564.
  • ^ a b Morabito, Antonio; Lall, Anupam; Piccolo, R. Lo; McCarthy, Helen; Kauffmann, Lisa; Ahmed, Shiban; Bianchi, Adrian (May 2006). "". Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 41 (5): 919–922. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2006.01.013. ISSN 0022-3468. PMID 16677883.
  • ^ Goyal, Anju; Khalil, Basem; Choo, Kelvin; Mohammed, Khalid; Jones, Matthew (June 2005). "". Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 40 (6): 915–919. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2005.03.004. ISSN 0022-3468. PMID 15991170.Heartburn Remedies How To Naturally Treat (🔥 Treat GERD) | Heartburn Remedies Remedieshow to Heartburn Remedies for for 1 last update 2020/05/31
  • ^ Badillo, Raul (2014). "". World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5 (3): 105–12. doi:10.4292/wjgpt.v5.i3.105. PMC 4133436. PMID 25133039.Heartburn Remedies Common Heartburn Triggers (🔴 Home Remedy Solutions) | Heartburn Remedies Without Medicationhow to Heartburn Remedies for
  • ^ Medical Device Approvals: LINX™ Reflux Management System - P100049 Archived 10 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Update of 17 January 2014
  • Heartburn Remedies Soothe The Pain (🔴 Disease Treatment) | Heartburn Remedies 10 Remedieshow to Heartburn Remedies for ^ Jain, D; Singhal, S (March 2016). "". Clinical Endoscopy. 49 (2): 147–56. doi:10.5946/ce.2015.044. PMC 48215224821522. PMID 26878326.
  • ^ Hopkins, J; Switzer, NJ; Karmali, S (25 August 2015). "". World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 7 (11): 1039–44. doi:10.4253/wjge.v7.i11.1039. PMC 45496614549661. PMID 26322157.
  • Heartburn Remedies 11 Foods That Cause (🔴 The Discomfort) | Heartburn Remedies 7 Ways To Relievehow to Heartburn Remedies for ^ Mahadevan U, Kane S (July 2006). "". Gastroenterology. 131 (1): 278–82. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2006.04.048. PMID 16831610.Mahadevan U, Kane S (July 2006). "". Gastroenterology. 131 (1): 278–82. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2006.04.048. PMID 16831610.
  • ^ "". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 28 for 1 last update 2020/05/31 September 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  • ^ Tighe MP, Afzal NA, Bevan A, Beattie RM (2009). "". Paediatr Drugs. 11 (3): 185–202. doi:10.2165/00148581-200911030-00004. PMID 19445547.
  • Heartburn Remedies How To Get Rid (🔥 Quick Relief) | Heartburn Remedies What Is The Besthow to Heartburn Remedies for ^ van der Pol RJ, Smits MJ, van Wijk MP, Omari TI, Tabbers MM, Benninga MA (May 2011). "". Pediatrics. 127 (5): 925–35. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2719. PMID 21464183.
  • ^ Fedorak RN, Veldhuyzen van Zanten S, Bridges R (July 2010). "". Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology. 24 (7): 431–4. doi:10.1155/2010/296584. PMC 2918483. PMID 20652158. Lay summary.
  • ^^ Jafri SM, Arora G, Triadafilopoulos G (July 2009). "". Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 25 (4): 352–7. doi:10.1097/MOG.0b013e32832ad8b4. PMID 19342950.Jafri SM, Arora G, Triadafilopoulos G (July 2009). "". Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 25 (4): 352–7. doi:10.1097/MOG.0b013e32832ad8b4. PMID 19342950.
  • ^ Lipka, S; Kumar, A; Richter, JE (June 2015). "". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 13 (6): 1058–67.e1. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2014.10.013. PMID 25459556.
  • ^ Perry, KA; Banerjee, A; Melvin, WS (August 2012). "". Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques. 22 (4): 283–8. doi:10.1097/sle.0b013e3182582e92. PMID 22874675. the 1 last update 2020/05/31
  • ^^ Heartburn Remedies 10 Drinks To Avoid (☑ To Eat) | Heartburn Remedies 11 Foods That Causehow to Heartburn Remedies for Testoni PA, Vailati C (August 2012). "". Digestive and Liver Disease. 44 (8): 631–5. doi:10.1016/j.dld.2012.03.019. PMID 22622203.
  • External links[edit]

    Classification
    External resources
    Diseases of the digestive system (primarily K20–K93, 530–579)
    Upper GI tract
    Esophagus
    Stomach
    Lower GI tract:
    Intestinal/
    Enteropathy
    Small intestine
    (Duodenum/Jejunum/Ileum)
    Large intestine
    (Appendix/Colon)
    Large and/or small
    Gallbladder
    Bile duct/
    Other biliary tree

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